• Philosophy,  Physics,  Psychology

    The Five Forces of Nature

    Modern science describes nature as comprised of matter and forces. According to Sāńkhya, this description is both false as we have seen here and true as we have seen here. It is false because material properties such as mass and charge pertain to the observer’s senses, not to the material objects and therefore forces formulated based on such properties are fictions rather than reality. It is true in the sense that the external world still has properties such as redness and bitterness which are “matter” and these properties are connected to the senses through a “force” called prāna. Both matter and force are thus different in Sāńkhya than in modern…

  • Philosophy,  Physics,  Religion

    The Four Ethers of Sāńkhya Philosophy

    Sāńkhya describes four ethers—vaikhari, madhyama, pasyanti, and para—which are successively deeper aspects of the material world and contain different phenomena. The understanding of the successive ethers depends on the understanding of the previous ether. In that sense, there are four tiers of causality and each such tier must be fully understood to obtain a complete understanding of material nature. This post attempts to describe these four ethers and their respective differences. I will begin with the problems of causality in the grossest ether called vaikhari which comprises material objects and their sensations, and use it to develop an understanding of the higher ethers. This, like the previous post, is a…